Discover the differences between Equity REITs and Mortgage REITs, and how each type of real estate investment trust operates. Learn which one may be a better fit for your investment goals and risk tolerance. Get expert insights and make informed decisions. Read our in-depth guide now."
In the world of real estate investment, there are various strategies and vehicles available to investors. Two common types of real estate investment trusts (REITs) are equity REITs and mortgage REITs.
These REITs differ in their underlying assets and investment strategies, each offering unique opportunities and risks for investors. In this article, we will delve into the details of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, exploring their differences, benefits, and considerations. By the end, you'll have a better understanding of these investment options and be able to make informed decisions regarding your real estate investment portfolio.
What is a REIT?
REIT, or real estate investment trust, is a company that owns, operates, or finances income-generating real estate properties. It is a popular investment vehicle that allows individuals to invest in real estate without directly owning properties. REITs are required to distribute a significant portion of their taxable income to shareholders in the form of dividends.
REITs can invest in various types of real estate assets, including commercial properties (such as office buildings, retail centers, and industrial complexes), residential properties (such as apartment buildings and single-family homes), healthcare facilities (such as hospitals and medical offices), and specialized properties (such as data centers and self-storage facilities).
One of the key advantages of investing in REITs is their ability to provide investors with regular income through dividends. These dividends are typically derived from the rental income generated by the properties owned by the REIT. Additionally, REITs often offer the potential for capital appreciation as the value of their real estate holdings appreciates over time.
REITs are structured as publicly traded companies and are listed on major stock exchanges. This provides investors with liquidity, allowing them to buy and sell shares of REITs on the open market.
To qualify as a REIT, a company must meet certain requirements set forth by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). These requirements include distributing at least 90% of its taxable income to shareholders, deriving a substantial portion of its income from real estate-related activities, and having a diverse shareholder base.
Investing in REITs can be an attractive option for individuals seeking exposure to real estate as part of their investment portfolio. It offers the potential for income, diversification, and professional management of real estate assets. However, it's important for investors to conduct thorough research, evaluate the performance and financials of specific REITs, and consider their own investment objectives and risk tolerance before making investment decisions.
REIT is a company that owns, operates, or finances income-generating real estate properties. It provides investors with an opportunity to invest in real estate without directly owning properties and offers the potential for regular income and capital appreciation.
Types of REITs
REITs, or Real Estate Investment Trusts, come in various types, each with its own characteristics and investment focus. Here are some of the common types of REITs:
- Equity REITs: Equity REITs are the most prevalent type of REIT. They invest in and own income-generating properties such as residential buildings, commercial office spaces, retail centers, industrial warehouses, and hotels. The primary source of income for equity REITs comes from the rental income generated by leasing these properties to tenants.
- Mortgage REITs: Mortgage REITs primarily invest in real estate mortgages or mortgage-backed securities. Instead of owning physical properties, they lend money to property owners or invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by government agencies or private entities. The income generated by mortgage REITs mainly comes from the interest on these mortgage loans.
- Hybrid REITs: Hybrid REITs combine elements of both equity and mortgage REITs. They have diversified portfolios that include a mix of income-generating properties and real estate mortgage investments. This allows investors to benefit from both rental income and interest income.
- Retail REITs: Retail REITs specialize in owning and operating retail properties, including shopping malls, strip centers, and freestanding retail buildings. They generate income from leasing space to retail tenants, such as stores, restaurants, and entertainment venues.
- Office REITs: Office REITs focus on owning and managing office buildings and commercial office spaces. They derive income from leasing office spaces to businesses and organizations.
- Residential REITs: Residential REITs primarily invest in residential properties, including apartments, single-family homes, and condominiums. They generate income from renting these properties to individuals and families.
- Industrial REITs: Industrial REITs specialize in owning and managing industrial properties such as warehouses, distribution centers, manufacturing facilities, and logistics hubs. They generate income by leasing these properties to tenants involved in storage, distribution, and manufacturing activities.
- Healthcare REITs: Healthcare REITs focus on investing in properties related to the healthcare industry, such as hospitals, medical office buildings, assisted living facilities, and skilled nursing facilities. They generate income from leasing these properties to healthcare providers.
- Hotel REITs: Hotel REITs own and operate hotels, resorts, and hospitality properties. They generate income from room rentals, food and beverage services, and other amenities provided to guests.
- Specialty REITs: Specialty REITs cover a wide range of niche property types, such as data centers, self-storage facilities, timberlands, infrastructure assets, and more. These REITs focus on specific sectors that offer unique investment opportunities.
It's important for investors to understand the different types of REITs and their investment strategies when considering investing in real estate through REITs. Each type has its own risk profile, income potential, and exposure to market conditions. Conducting thorough research and seeking professional advice can help investors make informed decisions based on their investment goals and risk tolerance.
What is an Equity REIT?
An equity REIT, or real estate investment trust, is a type of REIT that primarily focuses on owning and operating income-generating real estate properties. Equity REITs invest in a wide range of property types, such as residential buildings, office spaces, retail centers, industrial complexes, and more.
The primary source of income for equity REITs comes from rental payments received from tenants occupying the properties they own. These rental payments contribute to the cash flow generated by the REIT. Equity REITs may also benefit from property appreciation over time, which can increase the overall value of their real estate holdings.
Investing in equity REITs offers several advantages. Firstly, it provides investors with a steady stream of cash flow through regular rental income. This income is often distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends. The reliable cash flow from equity REITs can be attractive to income-seeking investors.
Additionally, equity REITs offer diversification benefits. By investing in a portfolio of properties across different sectors and geographic locations, investors can spread their risk. This diversification can help mitigate the impact of a decline in one property type or region, as the performance of other properties may offset any potential losses.
Another advantage of equity REITs is their liquidity. As publicly traded entities, shares of equity REITs can be easily bought or sold on stock exchanges. This liquidity provides investors with the flexibility to enter or exit their investment positions as needed.
Advantages of Investing in Equity REITs
- Steady Cash Flow: Equity REITs provide a reliable stream of income through rental payments. As tenants lease the properties owned by the REIT, they pay rent, which contributes to the cash flow generated by the REIT. This income is often distributed to investors in the form of dividends.
- Diversification: Investing in equity REITs allows individuals to diversify their real estate investments across different property types and geographic locations. This diversification can help mitigate risk, as a decline in one property sector or region may be offset by the performance of others.
- Professional Management: Equity REITs are managed by experienced professionals who handle property acquisition, leasing, maintenance, and other operational tasks. Investors can benefit from the expertise and resources of these professionals without the need for direct involvement in property management.
- Liquidity: Equity REITs are publicly traded on stock exchanges, providing investors with the ability to buy or sell shares easily. This liquidity makes it convenient for investors to enter or exit their investment positions.
Equity REIT Considerations and Risks
When considering investing in equity REITs, it's important to be aware of the following considerations and risks:
- Market Volatility: Equity REITs can be influenced by market conditions and economic factors, such as changes in interest rates and overall real estate trends. Market volatility can impact property valuations and rental rates, which, in turn, can affect the income generated by equity REITs. It's crucial to monitor market conditions and assess the potential impact on the performance of the REIT.
- Property-Specific Risks: Different types of properties have their own inherent risks. For example, residential properties may be subject to fluctuations in housing demand and rental market conditions. Commercial properties may be influenced by changes in the business environment and tenant occupancy rates. Before investing in an equity REIT, it's important to evaluate the specific risks associated with the property types in the REIT's portfolio.
- Management Competence: The success of an equity REIT is closely tied to the competence and expertise of its management team. Inefficient management practices, poor decision-making, or lack of experience can negatively impact the financial performance and long-term prospects of the REIT. Before investing, it's prudent to research the track record and experience of the REIT's management team.
- Leverage and Financing Risks: Some equity REITs may utilize leverage, meaning they borrow money to finance their real estate investments. While leverage can amplify returns in favorable market conditions, it also exposes the REIT to increased risks. Excessive leverage can make the REIT more susceptible to market fluctuations and liquidity pressures. It's essential to assess the level of leverage employed by the REIT and its potential implications.
- Regulatory and Legal Considerations: Equity REITs operate within a regulatory framework and are subject to applicable laws and regulations. Changes in regulations related to real estate, taxation, or financial markets can have an impact on the operations and profitability of the REIT. Investors should stay informed about any regulatory or legal developments that may affect the equity REIT industry.
- Distributions and Dividend Sustainability: Equity REITs are required to distribute a significant portion of their taxable income to shareholders in the form of dividends. However, it's important to evaluate the sustainability of the dividend payments over the long term. Factors such as the REIT's cash flow, occupancy rates, and ability to maintain or increase rental income should be considered to assess the reliability of dividend payments.
- Market and Liquidity Risk: The liquidity of shares in equity REITs can vary depending on market conditions and investor sentiment. In certain market conditions, it may be challenging to buy or sell shares at favorable prices. Investors should consider their investment horizon and liquidity needs when investing in equity REITs.
Investing in equity REITs offers the potential for income, diversification, and exposure to the real estate sector. However, it's important to carefully consider the risks associated with equity REITs, including market volatility, property-specific risks, management competence, leverage and financing risks, regulatory considerations, dividend sustainability, and market liquidity. Thorough research and due diligence are essential before making investment decisions in equity REITs.
What is a Mortgage REITs?
A mortgage REITs, or real estate investment trust, is a type of REIT that specializes in investing in and managing mortgage-backed securities (MBS) or other real estate debt instruments. Unlike equity REITs that focus on owning physical properties, mortgage REITs primarily generate income through interest payments on the mortgages they hold.
Mortgage REITs invest in various types of mortgages, including residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, and mortgage-related assets. They may acquire existing mortgages or originate new loans. By investing in mortgage-related assets, mortgage REITs essentially act as lenders, earning interest income from the borrowers.
One of the key advantages of investing in mortgage REITs is the potential for higher returns compared to equity REITs. Mortgage REITs can leverage their investments by borrowing money at lower short-term interest rates and investing in higher-yielding mortgage-backed securities. The interest income earned from these investments forms the basis for the dividends distributed to shareholders.
Mortgage REITs often focus on income generation and are attractive to investors seeking regular cash flow. The dividends paid by mortgage REITs can be appealing to income-oriented investors, as they can provide higher yields compared to other income-generating investments.
Furthermore, investing in mortgage REITs can offer diversification benefits. By investing in a portfolio of mortgage-related assets, investors can spread their risk across different types of mortgages and maturities. This diversification can help mitigate the impact of any individual mortgage default or market fluctuations.
It's important to note that investing in mortgage REITs comes with certain risks. One significant risk is interest rate sensitivity. Mortgage REITs are highly sensitive to changes in interest rates. When interest rates rise, the value of existing mortgage-backed securities may decline, affecting the overall portfolio value of the mortgage REIT. Additionally, rising rates can increase borrowing costs, potentially reducing the profitability of the REIT.
Credit risk is another consideration for mortgage REIT investors. Mortgage REITs are exposed to the risk of borrower defaults on the underlying mortgages. Changes in economic conditions or an increase in borrower defaults can impact the performance of the mortgage-backed securities held by the REIT.
Advantages of Investing in Mortgage REITs
- High Potential Returns: Mortgage REITs often offer higher dividend yields compared to equity REITs. This is because they can leverage their investments by borrowing money at lower short-term interest rates and investing in higher-yielding mortgage-backed securities. Higher returns can be attractive to income-seeking investors.
- Diversification: Similar to equity REITs, mortgage REITs provide diversification benefits. By investing in a variety of mortgage types and maturities, investors can spread their risk across different segments of the real estate debt market.
- Income Focus: Mortgage REITs can be an attractive option for investors seeking income-focused investments. The interest payments received from mortgage-backed securities form the basis for the dividends distributed to shareholders.
- Potential Hedging: In some cases, mortgage REITs can act as a hedge against inflation. As inflation rises, the interest rates on the underlying mortgages may increase, leading to higher interest income for the mortgage REIT.
Mortgage REIT Considerations and Risks
When considering investing in mortgage REITs, it's important to be aware of the following considerations and risks:
- Interest Rate Sensitivity: Mortgage REITs are highly sensitive to changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the value of existing mortgage-backed securities may decline, affecting the overall portfolio value of the mortgage REIT. Additionally, rising interest rates can increase borrowing costs for the REIT, potentially reducing its profitability. Investors should monitor interest rate trends and evaluate the potential impact on mortgage REITs.
- Credit and Default Risk: Mortgage REITs are exposed to credit risk associated with the underlying mortgages they hold. If borrowers default on their mortgage payments, the REIT may face losses. Evaluating the credit quality of the mortgages held by the REIT and assessing the REIT's risk management practices are essential considerations for investors.
- Prepayment Risk: Prepayment risk refers to the risk that borrowers may pay off their mortgages earlier than expected, potentially resulting in lower interest income for the mortgage REIT. Changes in interest rates, economic conditions, or borrower behavior can impact prepayment rates. Investors should assess the REIT's exposure to prepayment risk and its ability to manage this risk effectively.
- Liquidity Risk: Mortgage-backed securities may have varying levels of liquidity. In certain market conditions, it may be challenging for the mortgage REIT to sell these securities at favorable prices. Investors should consider the liquidity of the mortgage-backed securities held by the REIT and the potential impact on the REIT's ability to meet its obligations.
- Regulatory and Compliance Risks: Mortgage REITs operate within a regulatory framework and must comply with applicable laws and regulations. Changes in regulations related to mortgage lending, securities, or taxation can impact the operations and profitability of the REIT. Investors should stay informed about regulatory developments that may affect the mortgage REIT industry.
- Market and Economic Conditions: Mortgage REITs are influenced by overall market and economic conditions. Factors such as housing market trends, employment levels, and general economic health can impact the performance of mortgage REITs. It's important to evaluate the REIT's exposure to different market segments and assess the potential risks arising from changing economic conditions.
- Management Competence: The expertise and experience of the management team are crucial for the success of a mortgage REIT. Inefficient risk management practices or poor decision-making can negatively impact the REIT's performance. Before investing, investors should research the track record and expertise of the REIT's management team.
- Dividend Sustainability: Mortgage REITs typically distribute a significant portion of their taxable income as dividends to shareholders. However, the sustainability of these dividends can be influenced by factors such as interest rate fluctuations, credit performance of the underlying mortgages, and cash flow generation. Investors should assess the REIT's ability to sustain dividend payments over the long term.
Investing in mortgage REITs offers the potential for income and diversification. However, it's important to consider the risks associated with mortgage REITs, including interest rate sensitivity, credit, and default risk, prepayment risk, liquidity risk, regulatory and compliance risks, market and economic conditions, management competence, and dividend sustainability.
Thorough research and evaluation of these risks are essential before making investment decisions in mortgage REIT
10 Best REIT Investments 2023
Dividend yield and share price growth are the two ways that REITs return value to shareholders.
As a refresher, dividend yield is calculated by dividing the total yearly dividend payment by the share price. A REIT that trades for $100 and pays dividends of $10 annually so yields 10%. For reference, the benchmark FTSE Nareit All REIT Index had a dividend yield that varied from 3.1% to 4.3% in 2022.
The yields of the REITs in the table below, which range from 4.48% to 10.8%, surpass that of the index.
|Forward Dividend Yield
|Blackstone Mortgage (BXMT)
|Omega Healthcare Investors (OHI)
|Senior care facilities
|Medical Properties (MPW)
|City Office REIT (CIO)
|Office space in the southern U.S.
|Piedmont Office Realty (PDM)
|Office space in Eastern U.S.
|Innovative Industrial Properties (IIPR)
|State-licensed cannabis facilities
|Douglas Emmett (DEI)
|Office space and apartments
|Iron Mountain (IRM)
|Realty Income (O)
|Freestanding commercial properties
|Crown Castle (CCI)
10 Highest Dividend REITs 2023
Additionally, dividend yields from REITs might be substantially greater than 10%. The 10 REIT stocks with yields between 12% and 21% are listed in the table below. Just be aware that the share price and dividend payout volatility is likely to be higher with these high-yielding choices.
Highest Yielding REITs
|Forward Dividend Yield
|Armour Residential REIT (ARR)
|Residential mortgage-backed securities
|Invesco Mortgage Capital (IVR)
|Residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities
|Orchid Island Capital (ORC)
|Residential mortgage-backed securities
|Annaly Capital Management (NLY)
|Ready Capital (RC)
|Cherry Hill Mortgage Investment (CHMI)
|Residential mortgage assets
|Western Asset Mortgage Capital (WMC)
|Residential mortgage assets
|Two Harbors Investment (TWO)
|Residential mortgage-backed securities
|MFA Financial (MFA)
|Residential mortgage assets
|Chimera Investment (CIM)
|Data source: Morningstar. As of February 16, 2023
Why are mortgage REITs risky?
Mortgage REITs are considered risky due to their sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations. As interest rates rise, the value of mortgage-backed securities held by the REITs may decline, potentially affecting their overall portfolio value.
Additionally, mortgage REITs are exposed to credit risk, as defaulting borrowers can result in losses for the REIT. Prepayment risk, liquidity risk, and regulatory compliance risks are also factors that contribute to the risk profile of mortgage REITs.
What is an example of an equity REIT?
An example of an equity REIT is Realty Income Corporation (NYSE: O). Realty Income is a well-known real estate investment trust that focuses on owning and operating commercial properties. The company primarily invests in retail properties and has a diverse portfolio across various sectors, including retail, industrial, and office spaces.
Are equity REITs risky?
While all investments come with inherent risks, equity REITs are generally considered less risky compared to mortgage REITs. Equity REITs derive their income from rental payments and property appreciation, which provide a more stable income stream compared to the interest income of mortgage REITs.
However, equity REITs are still subject to risks such as market volatility, property-specific risks, and management competence. It's important for investors to assess these risks before investing in equity REITs.
Which is better, hybrid or equity?
The choice between investing in hybrid REITs or equity REITs depends on an investor's individual preferences, risk tolerance, and investment goals. Hybrid REITs invest in a combination of both real estate properties and mortgage-backed securities, providing a blended exposure to both types of assets. Equity REITs primarily focus on owning and operating properties.
Equity REITs may be more suitable for investors seeking stable income from rental payments and potential property appreciation. Hybrid REITs can offer a diversified investment approach, combining the income potential from properties and the interest income from mortgages. It's important for investors to carefully evaluate the specific characteristics, risk profiles, and investment strategies of each type of REIT before making a decision.
What is a drawback of REITs?
One drawback of REITs is their tax treatment. To qualify as a REIT, these entities are required to distribute a significant portion of their taxable income to shareholders as dividends. As a result, REIT dividends are generally subject to ordinary income tax rates, which may be higher than the tax rates applied to qualified dividends or long-term capital gains.
Additionally, the income received from REIT dividends may not qualify for certain tax benefits, such as the preferential tax rates for qualified dividends or the lower tax rates on long-term capital gains. Investors should consult with tax advisors to understand the tax implications of investing in REITs and how they align with their overall tax strategies.
What is a mortgage-backed security (MBS)?
A mortgage-backed securities (MBS) is an investment that resembles a bond and is composed of a collection of mortgages that have been acquired from the banks that issued them. Periodic payments akin to bond coupon payments are made to MBS investors.
Equity REITs and Mortgage REITs offer distinct investment opportunities within the real estate sector. Equity REITs provide investors with exposure to income-generating properties, offering steady cash flow and diversification benefits. On the other hand, mortgage REITs focus on real estate debt instruments, aiming for higher yields through interest payments.
When considering investing in either type of REIT, it's important to evaluate your risk tolerance, investment goals, and market conditions. Conduct thorough research, analyze the performance of specific REITs, and consider seeking advice from a qualified financial professional.
Remember, successful real estate investment involves a combination of factors, including property selection, management competence, and market conditions. By understanding the characteristics and risks of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, you can make informed decisions to build a well-diversified and profitable real estate investment portfolio.
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